Zig is a general-purpose programming language designed for robustnessoptimalityand maintainability. Often the most efficient way to learn something new is to see examples, so this documentation shows how to use each of Zig's features. It is all on one page so you can search with your browser's search tool. If you search for something specific in this documentation and do not find it, please file an issue or say something on IRC.
The code samples in this document are compiled and tested as part of the main test suite of Zig. This HTML document depends on no external files, so you can use it offline. Where is the documentation for the Zig standard library?
Usually you don't want to write to stdout. You want to write to stderr. And you don't care if it fails. It's more like a warning message that you want to emit. For that you can use a simpler API:. Note that we also left off the! In Zig, if your main function cannot fail, you must use the void return type. There are no multiline comments in Zig e. This helps allow Zig to have the property that each line of code can be tokenized out of context.
A doc comment is one that begins with exactly three slashes i. The doc comment documents whatever immediately follows it. Doc comments are only allowed in certain places; eventually, it will become a compile error to have a doc comment in an unexpected place, such as in the middle of an expression, or just before a non-doc comment.
In addition to the integer types above, arbitrary bit-width integers can be referenced by using an identifier of i or u followed by digits. For example, the identifier i7 refers to a signed 7-bit integer. The maximum allowed bit-width of an integer type is All Escape Sequences are valid in both string literals and character literals. Note that the maximum valid Unicode point is 0x10ffff. Multiline string literals have no escapes and can span across multiple lines. Just like a comment, the string literal goes until the end of the line.
The end of the line is not included in the string literal. Use the const keyword to assign a value to an identifier:. Pointers have their own const-ness.
If you need a variable that you can modify, use the var keyword:. Use undefined to leave variables uninitialized:. Once this happens, it is no longer possible to detect that the value is undefined. Translated into English, undefined means "Not a meaningful value. Using this value would be a bug.So this post initially started out as a sort of experience report on how I got Zig working with a C library open I am quite familiar with, especially in terms of C interop, as I was using it with CGo.
However, this little experiment did not go quite as planned…. For this reason using a fast and efficient language would be a good idea. Most of our services are generally written in Go which is good enough, but Go interop with C is sometimes very annoying and not really an ideal situation plus it comes with some overhead.
While CGo has its fair share of problems 1overall I am quite impressed with how easy it was to get working. So when I cam across Zig and its promise of super easy C interop, I was intrigued. Then the build. Zig is still very new and the docs, especially when it comes to the build system are not great yet. Which is a shame because the build system seems really cool, but I am sure they will be working on that in due time.
The code you can see here:. The next step was to interact with the server instance a bit, add some variables, etc. The first hurdle was, as it always seems, strings. Converting from Go strings to C strings requires the use of C. CString and will force reallocation of the string on the C heap, which means it also needs to be manually freed.
Zig has no built-in notion of strings, instead treating them simply as [:0]const u8zero-terminated arrays of unsigned 8-bit integers. I think this the correct behaviour and most C compilers rightfully warn users when a cast discards a const modifier. This is hardly better than Go. While local variables can be marked as varfunction parameters in Zig are always immutable, so no luck there. Maybe there is a way of coercing the const away somehow. I guess I could write a C function which takes a const pointer and dangerously cast it away, returning the same pointer as non- const.
Sometimes just writing to memory willy-nilly can be fun. In theory this is cool and even allows fairly easy translation from C code to Zig code potentially converting an entire project from C to Zig, similar to something like corrode for C to Rust. In practice this means that Zig must support all C features you want to use.
I like Zig. While experimenting I was writing a different article in which I was documenting my journey and my thoughts. I am not holding this against Zig in any way and I hope they can fix this at some point.
Zig has many interesting features and I really, really enjoyed the short time I had with it. Even the C interop overall is easy and intuitive. This problem is a very specific problem in a very specific usecase for a very specific reason. At the time of writing chroma did not have support for Zig highlighting and, because this blog is built in Hugo which uses chroma, neither does this article.
I sent a PR to the chroma team which was merged within 5 minutes of me opening it. So huge props to Alec Thomas. Now I will be eagerly awaiting a new chroma and subsequent Hugo release!Zig is an open-source programming language designed for robustnessoptimalityand clarity.
Often the most efficient way to learn something new is to see examples, so this documentation shows how to use each of Zig's features. It is all on one page so you can search with your browser's search tool. If you search for something specific in this documentation and do not find it, please file an issue or say something on IRC.
The code samples in this document are compiled and tested as part of the main test suite of Zig. This HTML document depends on no external files, so you can use it offline. Usually you don't want to write to stdout. You want to write to stderr. And you don't care if it fails. It's more like a warning message that you want to emit.
For that you can use a simpler API:. Note that we also left off the! In Zig, if your main function cannot fail, you must use the void return type.
Multiline string literals have no escapes and can span across multiple lines. Just like a comment, the string literal goes until the end of the line.
The end of the line is not included in the string literal. Integer literals have no size limitation, and if any undefined behavior occurs, the compiler catches it. However, once an integer value is no longer known at compile-time, it must have a known size, and is vulnerable to undefined behavior.
In this function, values a and b are known only at runtime, and thus this division operation is vulnerable to both integer overflow and division by zero. By default floating point operations use Optimized mode, but you can switch to Strict mode on a per-block basis:.
For this test we have to separate code into two object files - otherwise the optimizer figures out all the values at compile-time, which operates in strict mode.Zig is a general-purpose programming language and toolchain for maintaining robustoptimaland reusable software.
Often the most efficient way to learn something new is to see examples, so this documentation shows how to use each of Zig's features.
It is all on one page so you can search with your browser's search tool. If you search for something specific in this documentation and do not find it, please file an issue or say something on IRC. The code samples in this document are compiled and tested as part of the main test suite of Zig. Where is the documentation for the Zig standard library? The Zig code sample above demonstrates one way to create a program that will output Hello, world!
The code sample shows the contents of a file named hello. Files storing Zig source code are UTF-8 encoded text files. The files storing Zig source code are usually named with the. Following the hello. Then, the hello program is executed showing its output Hello, world! Everything else is program output. The code sample begins by adding Zig's Standard Library to the build using the import builtin function. The import "std" function call creates a structure to represent the Standard Library.
The code then makes a top-level declaration of a constant identifiernamed stdfor easy access to Zig's standard library. Next, a public functionpub fnnamed main is declared. The main function is necessary because it tells the Zig compiler where the start of the program exists. Programs designed to be executed will need a pub fn main function. For more advanced use cases, Zig offers other features to inform the compiler where the start of the program exists.Zig is a general-purpose programming language and toolchain for maintaining robustoptimaland reusable software.
Zig's entire syntax is specified with a line PEG grammar file. There is no hidden control flowno hidden memory allocations, no preprocessor, and no macros. If Zig code doesn't look like it's jumping away to call a function, then it isn't. This means you can be sure that the following code calls only foo and then barand this is guaranteed without needing to know the types of anything:.
Zig promotes code maintenance and readability by making all control flow managed exclusively with language keywords and function calls. Zig has four build modesand they can all be mixed and matched all the way down to scope granularity.
Here is what Integer Overflow looks like at compile time, regardless of the build mode:. Those stack traces work on all targetsincluding freestanding.
With Zig one can rely on a safety-enabled build mode, and selectively disable safety at the performance bottlenecks.
For example the previous example could be modified like this:. Zig uses undefined behavior as a razor sharp tool for both bug prevention and performance enhancement. Please note that Zig is not a fully safe language. For those interested in following Zig's safety story, subscribe to these issues:. When compiled with --release-smalldebug symbols stripped, single-threaded mode, this produces a 9. Top level declarations such as global variables are order-independent and lazily analyzed.
The initialization value of global variables is evaluated at compile-time. In other programming languages, null references are the source of many runtime exceptions, and even stand accused of being the worst mistake of computer science. However any type can be made into an optional type by prefixing it with?
To unwrap an optional value, one can use orelse to provide a default value:. In order to accomplish this, Zig programmers must manage their own memory, and must handle memory allocation failure.
This is true of the Zig Standard Library as well.These are two of the greatest amateur fighters in boxing history and the fact that they are going at each other is something truly splendid.
I'm honored to promote this fight. But the bout offers much more to each fighter on a macro level. For Rigondeaux, 37, his professional career has been a constant battle of one step forward and two steps back. Often avoided due to his talent level and lack of marketability, Rigondeaux has typically been his own worst enemy when it comes to business decisions and his reluctance to fight in a style other than cautious.
But a win over Lomachenko would offer Rigondeaux a bookending victory to his career, pairing with his surgical decision win over Nonito Donaire that made his name professionally in 2013. It would also offer Rigondeaux a chance to play spoiler for a second time against his former promoter Arum, who dropped him after his contract expired in 2013.
While you could argue that Lomachenko would benefit more from a commercially satisfying victory to further help build his star, a win over Rigondeaux offers something critically that no other fight can match. And for those who have been slow to anoint Lomachenko so early in his career as one big-name fighter after another as avoided him, this is important. Power: Both have relied more on speed and accuracy to finish opponents than heavy hands over the years. And even though Rigondeaux likely has more power comparable to his own division than Lomachenko, considering he has a history of having broken the eye sockets of two opponents and the jaw of another, it's hard to overlook he will be moving up two divisions to face Lomachenko.
Rigondeaux has also proven susceptible to flash knockdowns at both 118 and 122 pounds. Speed: It's going to be fun finding out exactly who has the edge. While Rigondeaux is naturally smaller and has long relied on a lightning quick counter left hand, he's also 37 and has been a victim of inactivity.
Lomachenko, meanwhile, appeared to shock featherweight Gary Russell Jr. Technique: Just how good are these two from a technical standpoint. Let it be known, from now until the end of their respective careers, that this is the only time either one will enter a fight without owning a dominant advantage in this category. That's what makes this fight unique to any other. Defense: Part of what makes this matchup so fun is that both are polar opposites in terms of their natural inclinations.
Lomachenko is a flashy offensive whiz who uses footwork and awkward angles to break opponents down. Rigondeaux is more comfortable avoiding punches and exposing his opponent than necessarily making him pay. Like his contemporary Floyd Mayweather, "El Chacal" is in the conversation among the greatest defensive fighters who have ever laced up gloves.
Intangibles: Lomachenko is in the midst of his physical prime at 29 and has been both active and ambitious in his short career, having fought for a world title in his second pro bout. Rigondeaux is a different story. In fact, there are more things going against him than for him in this fight, including age and weight.Zig \u0026 Sharko 👶 BABY MERMAID 👶 KITTY FAMILY 💓 Cartoons for Children - Baby Shark Cartoon
As someone who identifies more as an in-ring artist than prizefighter, Rigondeaux's brilliance doesn't always lend itself to easy translation (and appreciation) by judges. Lomachenko has promised to walk through Rigondeaux "like a tank" and knock him out. While the bold proclamation births the potential for entertainment, it also threatens to summon a dangerous version of Rigondeaux only seen the rare times opponents have forced it out of him through pressure.
What should decide early what kind of fight this turns out to be is just how much the difference in size ends up playing a factor. If Rigondeaux is able to make Lomachenko pay for closing distance without without being defied dramatically by age and his own chin, this one has all the makings to be high-speed chess at its finest.
Lomachenko isn't big for 130 pounds and doesn't employ a style (similar to how Orlando Salido leaned on him in his lone pro defeat) where the extra weight will make much of a difference. Should Rigondeaux survive the early rounds, it will be interesting to see which boxer is forced to alter his style first and make an adjustment. It's a scenario that will be predicated upon who wins the early battle of hand and foot speed to control pace and distance.Was it 7899365 or 522994.
The author doesn't explain 4836255's involvement and what the hell was up with 908872. I will admit that 912243 made me cry, and I nearly busted a gut over 3345221.
My emotions were just all over the place. ByTJ Holmeson March 3, 2014Format: PaperbackDid Rand's marketing department make a mistake. That means each digit only costs 0.
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