In the current Pandemic scenario, all articles related to Coronavirus will be processed on a free, quick track basis, to ensure timely review and publication of much needed research. The journal aims to publish the highest quality original research and review articles, drug clinical trial studies and guest edited thematic issues in the field.
Topics covered include: pharmacokinetics; therapeutic trials; adverse drug reactions; drug interactions; drug metabolism; pharmacoepidemiology; and drug development. The journal is essential reading for all researchers in clinical pharmacology. Search Advanced Search. Toggle navigation. Order Your Article Before Print. Become a Section Editor. Become a Reviewer. Join Editorial Board. Book Proposal. Become an Executive Guest Editor.
Thematic Issue Proposal. Online Abstract Submission. View Editorial Permissions. Surotomycin A Novel Cyclic Lipopeptide vs. Patrick, Olivier Sawoo, Tona L. Current Clinical Pharmacology, Volume 15 - Number 1 This issue is in progress but contains articles that are final and fully citable.
View Biography. Akarsu, Hava O. Dede, Nerses Bebek, Sevda O. Akkan DOI: Articles Ahead of Print. Radzki DOI: Long-acting Injectable vs. Guilherme Couto, Catarina S. Mendes DOI: Abstracts Ahead of Print.Super Wings Is dedicated to creating and facilitating travel experiences that expand awareness and give each person a true sense of the country and culture they are visiting.
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Kindly send your request for booking. Today is second Monday of year 2kHe was born 10th April, Dangote is ranked by Forbes magazine as the 67th richest person in the world and the richest in Africa.
He served as the Vice-President of Nigeria from to He was born 25th November, Having benefited from the US system of instruction as a young man, Atiku was eager to make available in Nigeria an American trained faculty emphasising critical thinking, small classes, student participation and problem-solving.
He also issued scholarship to 15 escapees of The Chibok schoolgirls kidnapping in a bid to alleviate the educational fall in Northeastern Nigeria. Amina Temitope Ajayi aka Mama Diaspora is a US-based Nigerian business consultant who is an accountant by training, a social entrepreneur and an ardent community activist. Chief Ajayi is well known for promoting women empowerment and poverty eradication in Africa through Agri-business.
Folorunso Alakija is one of the richest black women in the world. She is a business tycoon involved in the fashion, oil and printing industries. Folorunsho has a foundation called the Rose of Sharon Foundation that helps widows and orphans by empowering them through scholarships and business grants.
Her company is also a major sponsor of the Agbami medical and engineering scholarship scheme, one of the most reliable scholarship scheme in Nigeria with over a thousand people yearly as beneficiaries. The money was used to complete the construction of a Seat Lecture Theater, which was named after her.
His leadership at the bank positioned Zenith as one of the most profitable, largest and most respected banks on the African continent. During a public forum in Februaryhe recounted his reasons for setting up the charity:. I did not just want to leave the money in the bank. At some point, I thought about saving the money for my children, but I decided against it. So, I decided, why not give back to my people. Tony Onyemaechi Elumelu is a Nigerian economist, entrepreneur, and philanthropist.
Following his retirement from United Bank for Africa in JulyElumelu founded The Tony Elumelu Foundationdedicated to the promotion and celebration of entrepreneurship and excellence in business leadership across Africa.
Wale Babalakin is a very committed philanthropist. When the office of the Public Defender in Lagos was gutted by fire, Dr. Babalakin, in recognition of the significant role the institution played in defending the rights of the masses, opted to rebuild and furnish it.List of companies where Folorunso Munirudeen Ajayi was involved.
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Company documents: 25 - buy documents.Determination of the phases of the estrous cycle and induction of estrus heat in experimental animals remains useful, especially in reproductive function research.
This review provides a detailed description and discusses extensively the variations observed in different phases of the estrous cycle in laboratory animals using rats and mice as examples.
Folorunso Munirudeen Ajayi
The importance of experimental animals in teaching and research cannot be over-emphasised. Studies using animal models have advantages such as the availability of experimental subjects, ability to perform invasive tests, extensive tissue sampling, and standardisation of disease severity and the possibility of prophylaxis [ 1 ]. Other advantages include secure handling of subjects, elimination of attrition from the study except in cases of mortalityand controlled experimental conditions.
Although, the choice of animal in biomedical research for a particular investigation may be controversial and highly opinionated, experimental animals commonly used include mice, rats, and rabbits.
Current Clinical Pharmacology
Small rodents like mice and rats are more preferred to larger animals like rabbits, dogs, cats, pigs and monkeys [ 2 ]. In reproductive function research, particularly those involving the use of female animals, mice and rats are commonly used, possibly due to their well characterized estrous cycle and secure handling.
The short and precise length of estrous in these rodents [ 34 ] also makes them very suitable. Determining the estrous phase is essential for selecting a female animal that will mate when paired with a male counterpart to achieve timed-pregnancy or tracking of estrous as a variable that may affect research [ 5 ]. Assessment of the estrous cycle in experimental animals is a useful measure of the integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and the functioning reproductive status of the female reproductive system [ 4 ].
It can also be used to investigate the effects of drugs and chemicals on reproductive function [ 6 ] frequently expressed as a disruption in the typical morphology, cytology and histology of reproductive organs and alteration in the duration of particular phases of the estrous cycle.
The estrous cycle refers to the reproductive cycle in rodents. It is similar to the human reproductive cycle, commonly called the menstrual cycle ovarian and uterine cycles.
The reproductive period and estrous cycle of mice commences about the 26th day after birth with the opening of the vagina, which is about 10 days before vaginal cornification [ 7 ]. The apoptosis-mediated vaginal opening is an essential secondary character in mice, which is used as a predictor of puberty [ 8 ].
The vaginal unfolding is associated with an increase in oestradiol concentration. In rats, a vaginal opening occurs during the first ovulation [ 4 ]. The first proestrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus then follow. Metestrus only occurs in the absence of conception [ 6 ]. On the other hand, in humans, there are three phases of the menstrual cycle; the menstrual, proliferative follicularand secretory luteal phases.
This cycle begins at puberty. At mid cycle, between the proliferative and secretory phases, is the ovulatory phase during which ovulation occurs following LH surge.
The proliferative phase is primarily associated with high estrogen levels while the secretory phase is associated with high progesterone levels [ 11 ]. The proestrus phase corresponds to the human follicular stage, which is associated with a rise in circulating estradiol concentrations and little surge in prolactin, this leads to a rise in LH and Follicle Stimulating Hormone FSH release.
The peak in FSH concentration with an associated rapid decline in estradiol levels correlates to ovulation and estrus phase.
Metestrus and diestrus are homologous to human early and late secretory stages of the reproductive cycle, respectively, with high levels of progesterone [ 12 ]. Heape further named and defined the phases of the mammalian estrous cycle into proestrus, metestrus, diestrus and anestrus.
Proestrus is the preparatory stage for an animal coming into heat, metestrus which is a brief period characterized with decline of corpus luteum functions in the absence of conception when the activities of reproductive organs gradually subside, diestrus which is a period of short rest during the breeding season, and anestrus which a non-breeding period when reproductive organs are quiescent [ 15 ]. Behavioural changes, as well as morphological, cytological and histological changes in the reproductive tract, describe these phases.
In the early days, macroscopic changes in the vulva such as vulva swellingvaginal secretions such as bleeding, and mucousand uterus such as congestion as well as microscopic changes in the reproductive tract were used to define estrous cycle phases. However, macroscopic findings were unreliable in small rodents, and histological analysis was and remains an invasive procedure which is not suitable for estrous cycle staging in live animals. Stockard and Papanicolaou [ 16 ] later characterized the vagina changes during the estrous cycle through histology and cytology; this circumvented the earlier problems of unreliability and invasiveness.
The Pap smear by Papanicolaou is still used today as a screening for cervical cancer [ 17 ].Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Research. Vitamins as Antioxidants. Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Research 2 : Oxidative stress is a significant factor in the development of chronic diseases. An improved antioxidant potential in the body can reduce oxidative stress and prevent or improve disease conditions.
Some food nutrients, especially vitamin C, E, and carotenoids are well-known antioxidants; however, other vitamins such as Vitamin K, Vitamin D, Niacin, Pyridoxine and Riboflavin that may have antioxidant potential are usually not put into consideration.
This review entails studies that have investigated the antioxidant properties of other vitamins with the known antioxidants inclusive and their effect in reducing oxidative stress. The reviewed studies suggest that other vitamins possess antioxidant nature, and they can improve oxidative stress, ranging from lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and reduction of advanced glycated end-products. Therefore, proper attention should be given to these neglected vitamins in research activities on oxidative stress, nutrition and the management of diseases related to oxidative stress.
Antioxidants; Chronic diseases; Oxidative stress; Vitamins. Oxidative stress is a condition characterised by a high rate of reactive oxygen species or reduced capacity to neutralise them. Oxidative stress is responsible for the development of many chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases , cancer , and diabetes . Several researchers have given close attention to the connection between oxidative stress and these mentioned diseases because they are of public health importance.
Increasing antioxidant capacity is one of the ways of reducing oxidative stress. Many studies have examined the antioxidant potential of some vitamins such as vitamin E, vitamin C, and Carotenoids and their role in human health. It has almost become a well-established fact that the vitamins mentioned above possess the antioxidant capacity. Even though the possible part of other vitamins on oxidative stress has received little attention, these vitamins have not been well appraised for their role in health as an antioxidant or in their deficiency state.
Some of the ignored antioxidant vitamins are Vitamin K, Vitamin D, Niacin, Pyridoxine, and Riboflavin, which act as co-enzyme in many cases to attack free radicals and, their deficiency states precipitate oxidative stress. Numerous studies have reported the effect of these vitamins such as vitamin K on neuroprotection , riboflavin on lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls in rats , vitamin B12 on ganglion cells of the retina  to mention a few.
A deficiency of these vitamins is also associated with oxidative stress-induced conditions like atherogenesis , and increased homocysteine, which increases cardiovascular risk . The examples mentioned above point out that these vitamins possess antioxidant property, but more investigations should be carried out on these vitamins. This review evaluates studies that have investigated the antioxidant properties of these vitamins and their effect on oxidative stress.
Oxidative stress is a condition caused by an imbalance between the free radicals and antioxidant defence system of the body. In health, free radicals and antioxidants remain in balance state , but in conditions of oxidative stress, there is a large number of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species than the antioxidant. Some atoms are unstable and highly reactive due to the presence of unpaired electrons in valence orbitals.
They attain stability by acquiring electrons from nearby molecules in the body, causing a cascade of reactions resulting in cellular damage and diseases [9, 10].Dapo was appointed by the Governing council of Ajayi Crowther University. He started his primary education at St Andrew's primary school, Kabba where he later proceeded to Holy Trinity at Lokoja.
He worked in University of Ilorin as a sabbatical Senior lecturerAssociate Professor and rose to the post of a Professor of Christian Studies in He is married to Barrister Mrs. Harriet Seun Asaju with kids.
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